Pine cones drop from pine trees when they reach full maturation, which is when they reach approximately 2 years of age. These 2-year-old cones are female.
Conifer trees grow both male and female pine cones. The female cones, when pollinated, grow seeds. When most people think of the typical large, wood-scaled pine cones, they are thinking of the females of the species.
Male pine cones do not grow to the same size as female cones, and they fall off trees soon after they release pollen. Although they are technically not pine cones, science does not have a specific name for the male of the species.