The peanut plant is a low-growing legume with green oval-shaped leaves and yellow flowers that are produced on slender stalks. The plant forms a thick mat as it grows.
The peanut plant tolerates drought and some shade, and is a hardy plant that grows predominantly in warm seasons. It flowers above ground but bears fruit below ground. The flowers appear at the base of the plant, each containing five petals that enclose nine stamens.
After the flower is fertilized, the petals fall off, and the stalk curves downward into the soil. The peanut pod that develops is forced into the ground. The cells begin to divide and produce a peg that elongates. It typically contains two seeds. The peanut pod completes its full development under the ground. One plant can produce 40 or more peanut pods.