The parts of a solar panel include silicon disks, glass, dopants, thermal conductive cement and metal conductors. The process of creating solar panels can be a very delicate process and differ slightly depending on if using monocrystalline or polycrystalline material.
The silicon disks are the most delicate part of the solar panel creation. The material is formed into a solid form and then sliced into tiny thin wafers. These wafers are extremely thin and fragile. If they are made from monocrystalline then they will be a more even black color and perform well in low light conditions. Polycrystalline material will look marbled, almost like granite, and is more cost effective. Both materials have cons as well. The monocrystalline is susceptible to soiling and shade, while the polycrystalline material has less efficiency and doesn't do well in low light areas.
The dopants are a type of semiconductor material that works with the metal conductors that are placed across each silicon disk. They are aligned in a specific pattern on the panel, which gives the panel of being made up of tiny squares. A thin layer of glass that is put on top of the panel protects the whole device. It is then attached to a frame with thermally conductive cement, which not only holds it in place but helps keep the panel from overheating.