An oil-less turkey fryer does not fry anything; it uses propane to heat metallic elements to create an oven-like environment that cooks the turkey. The oil-less turkey fryer is called a fryer because it resembles how a turkey fryer is designed and used, with a tool to lower the turkey into the appliance. This method keeps the turkey from drying out or retaining oil afterward, as there is no air flow such as when roasting and no oil to drain.
Oil-less fryers are activated with dials that are found on most similar propane-utilizing appliances. This allows for the user to set the temperature to approximately what they need. Oil-less fryers come with grease trays, a feature lacking in traditional fryers as the grease from the turkey or other meat would get caught in the oils and become unusable as a component in gravy or otherwise. The fryer uses "infrared waves," which means it uses radiating heat from the metals within the appliance.
A reviewer on Epicurious.com performed a test of an oil-less turkey fryer. According to the review, the oil-less fryer cooks at the same speed as the alternative: at about 8 to 10 minutes per pound. One risk with an oil-less fryer is having the food stick to the inside of the fryer when pulling it out, but overall the quality of the food was exactly as the instructions stated.