If a ceiling fan will not turn on, it means there is an electrical issue. The first step would be to determine where the electric problem lies.
If a ceiling fan will not turn on, the first step is to determine whether or not the fan is receiving power. The problem could be as simple as a flipped circuit breaker. This means that the fan is not receiving power at all, therefore it will not turn on. If the circuit breaker is tripped, flipping back into the on position should solve the problem and the fan will come on.
If the circuit breaker is not tripped and there is power going to the fan, then the electric wiring in the fan needs to be checked. Power needs to be observed flowing to the fan circuit. This can be determined by unscrewing the cover to the electrical switch and applying a voltage tester to determine if electricity is going to the electric switch. If there is power, then the problem is in the fan unit. The connections need to be rechecked, as well as the pull chain switches and connections. If there is no power, then the problem lies at the switch or in the connections in the electric box.
An important safety reminder is to not touch the wires when the power is on, only when determining if there is in fact power to the wires.