Building a home sawmill requires a medium to large circular saw, a mounting system for the saw and a guide system for the logs. Typically chainsaw mills are cheaper and easier to construct than band saw or circular saw mills. Build a sturdy frame to hold the saw. Add guides extending from the frame that the logs run on. Ideally these should be covered in sheet metal to provide a smooth surface.
The frame and guides can be made of any weather-resistant material; however, treated wood is a common choice. Although small mills can be based entirely on manual movement of the logs, it is generally safest to install a pulley system that helps guide the logs past the blade.
If building a circular saw mill, MotherEarthNews.com suggests using a 30-inch blade. It also recommends a one-cylinder, 10-horsepower motor to turn the blade. The motor should be capable of turning the blade at a low RPM to achieve the best results.
The saw assembly can be as simple as a power saw attached to a frame. However, a setup with easily accessible controls and a safety cut-off is advisable even for basic home sawmills.
Keep in mind that in many areas it is necessary to have all lumber inspected by an official before it can be used for construction purposes.