Leaf-cutter ants are killed by harvester ants, which compete for resources and help control the population, and by pyrethrum dust used in conjunction with diatomaceous earth, which are organic pest control methods. Frogs are also known to prey on leaf-cutter ants.
Pyrethethrum dust is an organic insecticide that can be sprinkled to form a barrier between the ants and their vent. Leaf-cutter ants are named for their habit of cutting up parts of leaves and carrying them back to their den, accessed through a hole, or vent, in the ground. Gardeners should apply pesticides only to the vent, being careful not to damage or collapse it to prevent the ants from digging another exit and entry point. Pesticides applied indiscriminately to the entire area can kill harvester ants, causing the leaf-cutter ant population to explode with unfettered access to natural resources.
Leaf-cutter ants live underground in colonies, where they bring vegetation to turn it into compost that grows fungus. They feed on this fungus. While there are no products guaranteed to eliminate an entire colony, it is possible to control its population and limit the ants' access to plants, protecting bushes and gardens. Applying insecticides to leaves sometimes deters leaf-cutter ants from returning to a certain plant.