Generally included in fallout shelter plans are walls dense enough to protect against radiation, air filtration, water and food rations to last extended periods of time, a waste disposal system and an energy source or two. Energy sources suitable for fallout shelters are fuel and electric. A fallout shelter should have security measures to protect against intruders.
The most dangerous aspect of a nuclear event is airborne radioactive material being ingested into the lungs. Proper air filtration is one of the most important design points of any fallout shelter along with the material used and density thereof for the walls, floors and ceiling of the fallout shelter. Design the doorways and air ducts of the fallout shelter with 90-degree angles to protect against radiation as it cannot bend and turn. Radiation meters are an important tool to have during a nuclear event and should be located throughout the shelter and on every person.
Water is key to survival and should be stored in sealed plastic containers inside the shelter that are opened as needed or in a specially designed chamber of the shelter. 55-gallon drums are a common size to use in fallout shelter designs and survival camps for storing water. A gray water filtration system helps to recycle non-toxic wastewater for other purposes.