An "AE" marking on china identifies a piece among the oldest French Limoges porcelain, with a production date between 1797 and 1868. Markings of "CH Field Haviland," "Limoges," "CHF" and CHF/GDM" indicate Limoges china dating from 1868 to 1898. After this period various marks identify Limoges, including "GDA," "Haviland & Co. Limoges," "Limoges, France" and "Porcelaine." Elite Works' Limoges china has either a red mark indicating production between 1900 and 1914 or a green mark indicating production between1920 and 1932.
Limoges china is porcelain manufactured in the city of Limoges, France, though not all Limoges china includes the city's name. In the mid- to late-1800s, many smaller manufacturers of Limoges china included only the manufacturer's name, such as A. Lanternier and C. Ahrenfeldt. Some Limoges china markings include symbols, such as a butterfly, or a star surrounded by the words "Limoges France." True Limoges china markings are directly on the porcelain, not on top of the glaze. Limoges china pieces that do not include the word "France" indicate a production date prior to 1891, when the United States instituted the McKinley Tariff Law requiring all imported goods to identify the country of origin.
Kaolin, feldspar and quartz, which are ingredients of Limoges china, are mined in Limoges.