Home well water systems work by connecting a series of pipes from a pressure tank within the home to an underground water source, known as a well. The pipes, known as the casing, also typically contain a mechanical pump that draws the water out of the well and pushes it up to the pressure tank where it may feed into the home.
Most home water well systems consist of a storage system within the home, a pump that sits in the water reserve underground and casing that connects the two. The installation of such a system begins by drilling a hole into the ground to discover the water source, inserting the casing along the way to keep the shaft from collapsing. The depth of each shaft varies according to the soil conditions of the area and the drilling distance necessary to reach the water. The casing also helps protect the water from contamination during the pumping process.
The pump typically sits submerged in the underground reservoir, connected to the casing, and pulls in water using an internal motor. The activity of the pump depends on the amount of water in the pressure tank, which is located inside the home to protect the reserve water supply. Some systems also include a well screen that filters out sediment and other debris from the water. When the homeowner turns on a faucet, the pressure in the tank forces water out into the plumbing system.