To grow peanuts in a home garden, prepare the soil by loosening it to remove crusts, and have a soil test done to ensure it has the recommended pH. Plant the peanuts, and hill them when they are about 12 inches high. The National Peanut Board recommends watering the plants when they peg and keeping the soil moist until the last week before you harvest the peanuts.
Peanuts have a growing season that lasts up to 130 frost-free days. Yankee Publishers recommends that you plant peanuts a few weeks following the last frost date in spring or if you live in the Northern parts of the United States, opt for the early maturing variety.
The National Peanut Board says you should prepare the soil to the recommended 5.8 to 6.2 pH. In case the soil has a calcium deficiency based on a soil test, apply some garden gypsum to condition it. Gently crack the peanuts open without removing their peanut skins in readiness for planting. Plant the peanuts 2 inches deep and 6 inches apart in a row, and allow 3 feet between rows.
Once the plants reach about 12 inches, cultivate around them to allow the pegs to penetrate the soil easily. Hill them to control weeds, and mulch the growing plants with straw. The peanut plants flower and later grow toward the ground, back into the soil. Ensure to moisten the soil when the plants begin to peg up to a week before harvesting. The plants eventually yellow, implying the peanuts are ready for harvesting, which involves digging out the plants, ridding them of the soil and drying them indoors for about a month.