Graft fruit trees by choosing a type of graft, making a cut, matching the branch and grafted piece, and binding the two ends together. You need a grafting knife, grafting tape and asphalt water emulsion compound.
First, choose between a whip graft, cleft graft, side graft, budding graft or bridge graft. Choose a whip graft for young apple and pear trees or a cleft graft for older apple and pear trees. Use a side graft for medium-sized branches or a budding graft to graft a bud rather than an entire stem. A bridge graft is only necessary in order to keep a tree alive after rodents have gnawed away too much of the bark around the trunk.
For the youngest trees with the thinnest branches, whip graft a scion or stem from another tree onto the understock or area in which a branch is removed from the host tree to make way for the new stem. Using a grafting knife, remove the branch from the understock at an angle so that a 12-inch stub remains on which to graft the scion. Cut a tongue, which is a straight cut resulting in a tongue or flap of wood, in the stub and scion so that the two pieces fit together. Fit the tongue of the scion in the tongue of the understock so that the cuts on each match up, bind them together with grafting or adhesive tape, and cover them area with grafting compound.