To get rid of rats without traps or poison, use harmless mouse repellents such as peppermint oil, or physically trap and remove the rats from the home. Seal cracks, holes and vents to prevent rats from entering the home again.
Rats despise the smell of peppermint oil, so the oil is a useful rat repellent. Soak cotton balls in peppermint oil, and place them in areas where there are signs of rats. Some pest control companies manufacture all-natural rat repellents such as Earth-Kind's Fresh Cab. Use the repellent to seer the rats into an area for capture or on a route that leads out of the home.
Physically removing rats is effective only if the rat infestation is small in number. Use a cage trap to capture a rat in the home. Cage traps have one point of entry that locks or closes when the rat enters the cage. Place bait such as cheese or peanut butter inside the cage trap to help draw the rat inside.
The toilet roll trap is another method of catching a live rat. Place a toilet paper roll on a ledge with some bait inside the roll, and set a bucket under the ledge. Upon entering the toilet paper tunnel, the rat falls into the bucket for easy removal.