# Carpentry

Q:

## How many steps are there in a flight of stairs?

A:

The average flight of stairs contains 12 steps. For a person weighing between 150 and 160 pounds, climbing one flight of stairs three times per day burns approximately 15 calories, according to the Health Sciences Center of the University of New Mexico.

Filed Under:
• #### Q:How much does it cost to build a second story on a house?

A: While costs vary based on several factors, CostHelper.com estimates a do-it-yourself second story addition costs between \$70 and \$150 per square foot in 2014. Hiring a contractor for the work increases the cost to the \$100 to \$500 per square foot range, depending on the complexity of the project.
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• #### Q:How do you calculate how many shingles are needed for your building project?

A: Professional roofing contractors typically provide estimates of materials needed for roofing, including the number of shingles needed. Simple geometric calculations can provide a rough estimate.
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• #### Q:What is the best way to cover wood paneling?

A: While there is not a foolproof way to get rid of paneling, the easiest and most popular way to cover wood paneling is by painting over it. The grooves in the paneling can be sealed using joint compound, providing a smooth surface on which to add paint, or the paneling can be painted as it is, resulting in a textured appearance.
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• #### Q:How does a carpenter use geometry?

A: Carpenters use geometry to measure the length, calculate area and find the circumference of objects. Carpenters rely on different math functions, including geometry, to put things together in the way that makes the most sense.
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• #### Q:Which direction do I lay laminate flooring?

A: As a general rule, laminate flooring should be laid in the same direction as the longest wall in the room. If the room happens to be square, the floor boards should run in the direction of the room's light source.
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• #### Q:What is the standard handrail height for stairs?

A: According to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in the U.S., the majority of stair handrails must be between 30 and 37 inches in height. The measurement is from the upper surface of the handrail to the surface of the tread, which is in line with the face of the riser at the forward edge of the tread.
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• #### Q:How much does it cost to replace a roof?

A: The cost of replacing a roof ranges from \$4,000 for simple asphalt shingles to \$150,000 for high-end slate, The Miami Herald reports. It's more expensive to replace a roof with a steep slope because the work is more dangerous.
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• #### Q:How do you reinforce squeaky stairs?

A: According to This Old House, most of the time the only reinforcement squeaky stairs need is tightening up the fasteners that keep each part together. Stairs are built from dozens of individual parts joined together, and the squeaking could come from any of the places where the treads you actually step on meet the others. Check each part of the squeaky steps to learn where the problem area is.
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• #### Q:What is the best way to build a bedroom closet?

A: Regardless of whether the design is for a very basic bedroom closet or a more intricate one, the construction process follows the same basic steps: choosing a place, building the frame and finishing the closet. Make sure proper measurements have been made.
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• #### Q:How do you clean soot off of bricks?

A: Clean soot off of bricks using a mixture of soap and salt and some good old-fashioned elbow grease. Ammonia might be needed for tougher stains.
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• #### Q:How do you replace ceiling fan blades?

A: According to the Home Guide at San Francisco Gate, a ceiling fan blade can be replaced using a ladder or a set of steps and a screwdriver, along with the new blade. The old blade needs to be unscrewed and removed prior to the new one being set in place.
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• #### Q:How do you build a wood ladder?

A: The most important thing to know when constructing a ladder is that cheaper is not better. All wooden materials used to build a ladder should be either strong oak or construction grade lumber. The materials required include two 12 foot long 2 by 4s, two 8 foot long 2 by 3s, exterior wood glue, 2 and a half inch deck screws, clamps, circular saw, hammer, chisel, drill and measuring tape.
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• #### Q:Where can I buy used kitchen cabinets?

A: Lee Wallender of About.com recommends looking for used kitchen cabinets on Craigslist.org and Freecycle.org. ASA Builders Supply encourages starting a search locally through newspaper classified ads and auctions. Beginning locally, whether through Craigslist.org or a classified ad, allows buyers to see the condition and quality of the used cabinets they are purchasing before they buy them.
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• #### Q:How long does caulk need to dry?

A: Most caulks made of acrylic latex need to dry 2 to 4 hours before painting, according to DAP Products Inc. Painting before the caulk is completely dry sometimes causes the paint to crack.
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• #### Q:What is the average height of a two-story house?

A: The average height of a two-story house varies based upon ceiling height. In general, a story is calculated as 10 feet. This accounts for 8-foot ceiling heights with a 2-foot allowance for the infrastructure of the roof, so a two-story house would be about 20 feet high.
Filed Under:
• #### Q:How many steps are there in a flight of stairs?

A: The average flight of stairs contains 12 steps. For a person weighing between 150 and 160 pounds, climbing one flight of stairs three times per day burns approximately 15 calories, according to the Health Sciences Center of the University of New Mexico.
Filed Under:
• #### Q:How many square feet does a bundle of shingles cover?

A: According to builder Mike Guertin in a Fine Homebuilding article, a bundle of roofing shingles contains approximately 33 square feet of shingles. Shingles are sold by the bundle or the square. A square of shingles covers approximately 100 square feet.
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• #### Q:How do you build window shutters?

A: To build shutters, you start by measuring the height of the window along the outside frame. Prepare six finish boards and transfer the measurement to them. Mark the board vertically. Lay the boards perpendicular to each other, and join them with galvanized screws.
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• #### Q:How do you build a shelf in a garage?

A: Build an overhead shelf in your garage to create more floor space. Start by gathering your materials: brackets, carpenter's level, carpenter's square, circular saw, 4 x 8 plywood, 4 x 6 and 2 x 4 lumber, measuring tape, metal studs, paint or stain, 1-inch wood screws, a power drill, ratchets, screwdriver and wrenches.
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• #### Q:How do you fix a crack in a wall?

A: Fix a crack in a wall by using a utility knife to cut the crack so it is between 1/8 and 1/4 inch deep, fill it with joint compound, embed joint tape in the compound and spread the repair material using a 6-inch putty knife. Once the repair dries, use sandpaper to smooth it with the surrounding area, but do not sand into the paper tape. Complete the repair by painting with touch-up paint that matches the surrounding wall.
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• #### Q:What crown molding size should I use?

A: The proper size of crown molding depends on the height of the ceiling. The height of the molding should be bigger for higher ceiling heights. For example, if a ceiling is 8 feet high, use crown molding that is 2.5 to 6 inches.