As with all heat pumps, the amount of energy geothermal heat pumps use varies dramatically based on the ground temperature, its conductivity and how much heating or cooling is needed. However, they typically use far less electricity than air conditioners and electrical heaters.
Most air conditioners and air-based heat pumps send heat into the air outdoors. In hot temperatures, this process takes longer, and the structure being cooled needs more cooling to stay comfortable. Ground temperatures tend to be cooler in warm months, so it absorbs heat more quickly. Electrical resistance heaters convert electricity to heat. Except in exceptionally cold areas, geothermal heat pumps typically operate at three to six times the efficiency of electrical furnaces when measured by how much electricity is used.