Convection ovens utilize top, bottom and rear heating elements in tandem with a rear fan that pulls air from the oven and re-circulates it over food, providing quicker and more even heating compared to conventional ovens. A barrier called the baffle separates the oven from the rear heating element.
Conventional radiant ovens, also known as thermal ovens, use two heating elements on the top and bottom of the oven interior to heat food. This can cause uneven cooking and requires greater supervision than a convection oven.
A convection oven introduces a third heating element, which is separated from the oven chamber by the rear baffle wall. A fan set within the baffle draws cool air in from the chamber and passes it through the fan's filter to be heated by the rear heating element. The air is then gently pushed back into the oven via slots in the baffle wall. This method of heating speeds up the cooking process by around 25 percent. A convection oven also circulates air evenly throughout the chamber, which eliminates the hot and cool spots that can occur when food is placed on a rack closer to or further from the heating elements in a conventional radiant oven.