Apart from calling an exterminator, the fastest way to catch a mouse is to use mousetraps. Mousetraps kill mice, however, so a humane trap may be a better option. Humane traps let you capture the mouse and release it away from the home.
To catch a mouse using mousetraps, begin by scouting your house for the mouse's nest. Once you have determined where the mouse lives, place the mousetraps near its home. Bait them with peanut butter or cheese, and leave them alone for a few hours. Check on the traps twice per day until you catch the mouse. If you get no results after a few days, move the mousetraps to a different location.