To troubleshoot and repair an oil burner, you must first identify the specific problem. Common problems associated with an oil burner include insufficient heating, the furnace turning on and off repeatedly, a noisy furnace and the burner not firing.
Check the components of the oil burner that are susceptible getting clogged or dirty, such as the air filter, oil filter and the blower assembly to remedy for most of the common problems associated with oil burners. Check if the motor, blower or belts need lubrication to see if that is the cause of the furnace turning on and off repeatedly or a noisy furnace. Lubricate these parts and replace worn out belts to solve these problems.
If the oil burner completely fails to run, begin by checking if there is fuel in the tank or if the fuel line is blocked, then check for blown fuses or tripped circuit breakers. Refill the fuel tank, clean the oil pump strainer or reset tripped circuit breakers, as appropriate. Since oil burners can also fail due to an overloaded motor, wait for 30 minutes then press the reset button.
To avoid these common problems from developing, clean the thermostat and blower before each heating season, lubricate blower oil fittings and clean the soot from the stack control midway through the season.