Buy pistachio trees in pots to transplant them with the root balls intact. Nut production requires both male and female trees for fertilization. Purchase one male Peters male pistachio for every 11 female Kerman female pistachio trees.
Pistachio trees grow in any soil but thrive in sandy loam. They do best in dry, arid regions where temperatures reach above 100 degrees Fahrenheit, but they require a minimum of six weeks of dormancy during which time the temperatures remain below 45 degrees Fahrenheit. The trees do not grow well at high elevations or in any location where temperatures drop below 15 degrees Fahrenheit.
The seedlings grow in containers the first three to five years of their lives before they are ready to transplant to the garden. Plant them approximately 20 feet apart. At maturity, the trees grow up to 30 feet in height.
The trees begin to bear nuts about five years after planting but do not reach production maturity for another 10 to 15 years. The first year of production is usually about a half pound of nuts per tree, but mature pistachios produce 80 pounds each.
Improve pistachio production by pruning the trees, focusing on three primary horizontal branches. Remove all branches below these three branches and any branches above that shade them.