The Jewish holidays Tish'a B'Av, Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur fall within the calendar year. Sukkot, Shmini Atzeret, Simchat Torah, and Chanukah fall within the calendar year, as well.
Tisha B'Av is a day of fasting and mourning. It commemorates several tragedies that occurred on the ninth day of the Hebrew calendar month, Av. The primary tragedies observed are the destruction of Jerusalem's First and Second Temples.
Rosh Hashana is the Jewish New Year and is typically observed in September or October. It occurs 10 days before Yom Kippur, the Jewish holy day observed with fasting and intense prayer. Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur bookend the period called the High Holidays or Days of Awe.
Sukkot, also called the Feast of Tabernacles, falls between late September and late October. Jews are commanded to visit the Temple in Jerusalem on this day. The holiday occurs immediately before Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah.
Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah are combined into one holiday in both Reform Judaisim and in Israel. Shemini Atzeret is called the Eight Day of Assembly, and occurs in either September or October. Simchat Torah marks the end of one cycle of Torah readings and the beginning of a new one. Chanukah, also called the Festival of Lights is an 8-day holiday that falls between late November and late December. It commemorates the re-dedication of the Second Temple and the 2nd century Maccabean revolt.