The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics produced a total of 209 distinct coins of denominations, materials and production dates. Of these, 164 were commemorative coins glorifying Soviet achievements, major events and culture. Examples include a subset of coins minted from 1977 to 1980 that commemorated the USSR's hosting of the Olympic Games in Moscow and a subset commemorating Russian ballet.
Soviet-era coins vary in denomination from 1/2 kopeck to 150 rubles; 100 kopecks is equivalent to 1 ruble. Most denominations have multiple versions of the same coin, with variations in material and/or design. For example, there are seven versions of the 1 kopeck coin. Three of these versions were made of brass; four were made of aluminum and bronze. The design of the 1 kopeck changed significantly after the second version, which was produced from 1926 to 1935, then only had minor adaptations until 1991, when the USSR dissolved and production was stopped.
The commemorative coins were a unique set that was released in the USSR between 1965 and 1991. Most were made with copper and nickel, but some of the higher denominations were made of silver, gold, platinum or palladium. All of the commemorative coin sets were minted either by the Moscow Mint or the Leningrad Mint. Of the two, coins minted by the Moscow Mint are considered more rare and valuable.