The pitch range of a violin using standard tuning goes from a low of G beneath middle C, also called G3, all the way up to C8. This represents a total range of nearly 4 1/2 octaves.
While notes as high as C8 are possible, they require the use of harmonics. Harmonics are produced by resting the fingertip lightly on the string at specific spots along the fingerboard, while bowing to create a thin, high-pitched overtone. For practical purposes, the highest natural note on the violin is E7, which is two octaves above the open top string, E5. Orchestral violin parts rarely include notes as high as E7 due to the difficulties involved in producing a pleasing tone at such a high pitch.