Frenchman Martin Hottetere invented the bassoon around the 1650s, according to Bassoon Resource. The true four-section bassoon slowly began to replace the curtal in many countries around the world; its earliest use was in churches.
Hotteterre is believed to have built the bassoon into the four sections of bell, bass joint, boot and wing joint, which resulted in greater accuracy in machining the bore compared to the older curtal. Hotteterre also extended the pitch of the instrument with the addition of two keys and a longer bell. Four- and five-key instruments appeared in the early to mid-1700s, with makers including G.H. Scherer, J.H. Eichentopf, J. Poerschmann, Prudent Thieriot and Thomas Stanesbury, Jr.