There are four major types of saxophones: soprano, alto, tenor and baritone. There are other rare types of saxophones out there, as well. These include the C Melody, F Mezzo Soprano, C Soprano, Bass, Conn-O-Sax and the F Baritone.
Interestingly, most instruments have evolved during several years to the point that it is difficult to credit just one individual for their creation. But, a saxophone is a single reed woodwind instrument created in the mid-1800s by a man named Adolphe Sax. Saxophones work well as both solo instruments and ensemble instruments, but the likes of John Coltrane discovered their true potential in the early 1900s. The most commonly played saxophone is the alto, and it's the best one for beginner players.