The Hubble Space Telescope was invented by Lyman Spitzer, who first proposed the concept in 1946. Spitzer, a native of Toledo, Ohio, continued analyzing photos from the Hubble Space Telescope until his passing in 1997.
A:Barley was the main staple of the Sumerian diet, and was used to make barley cakes and barley paste. Sumerians combined barley with other local vegetables, including beans, lentils, chickpeas, mustard and lettuce. Lamb, goat, pork and fish were favorites with city-dwelling Sumerians, but rural farming communities did not eat meat often and lived on a mostly vegetarian diet.
A:Alexander the Great created the largest political empire in the ancient world. He is considered a great military leader and was an inspiration to future leaders such as Julius Caesar and Napoleon Bonaparte.
A:Since ships in the 1700s relied on sails to propel them, the length of the voyage greatly depended on the wind. An immigrant who made the journey in 1750 reported that it could take between eight and 12 weeks, while another who arrived in 1724 reported that the journey took six weeks and three days. The average journey was about seven weeks.
A:Confucius' most well-known accomplishment is creating the philosophy of Confucianism. This philosophy stresses that a stable society requires people to follow tradition and a policy of mutual respect. Confucianism provided the basis for the bureaucracy in imperial China.
A:The four staple foods in Mayan cuisine are squash, beans, maize and chili peppers, and they were often combined with meat or seafood. Squash, beans and maize are often referred to as the "three sisters" because they provide all the necessary nutrients when eaten together.
A:Chinese Taoist alchemists combined sulphur, saltpeter and charcoal to make the earliest form of huoyao, or gunpowder, during the eighth-century Tang Dynasty. It was used to kill insects and treat skin diseases before its weaponry advantages were realized.
A:Engineer Ralph H. Baer worked for a television manufacturer and came up with the idea to incorporate an electronic video game into a TV set to increase sales. The company rejected his plan, but Baer eventually developed a prototype console in 1967.
A:The abacus was invented by Chinese mathematicians approximately 5,000 years ago. The abacus is occasionally hailed as the world's first computer, but the abacus is more accurately described as a counting device. After its invention, people all around the world began using the abacus to help with their calculations.
A:Galileo Galilei improved upon the technology of the spyglass, creating a more powerful version that resulted in the first telescope. He also created the first pendulum clock and provided important research that concluded that the planets revolve around the Sun.
A:Antibiotics were present in ancient times in the form of molds. British scientist Sir Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin, the first working agent that demonstrated potent antibacterial properties, in 1928. Selman Waksman coined the term antibiotic in 1941, according to the National Center of Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health.
A:Alexandre Edmond Becquerel is considered the father of solar panels, having discovered how electricity is generated from sunlight in 1839. His research paved the way for the construction of solar energy plants that heated water to create steam to power machinery during the Industrial Revolution.
A:The crusades were ultimately won in the East by the Muslims when the Bahri Mamluks conquered Acre in 1291. While crusades were mounted even after this point, political witch-hunts mounted against the Knights Templar by King Philip IV of France made further major crusades in the Levant impractical.
A:The roles of a king during Medieval Europe included land ownership, warfare leadership and lawmaker. A king allowed knights, barons and lords to live on his land, as long as they provided armies of men to fight wars. When kings fought neighboring kingdoms, he led his men into battle. Kings were supreme rulers of their lands, and they meted out justice as they saw fit.
A:The Vikings invented the longboat during the Vikings Age from 800 to 1100 A.D. This type of ship helped them travel the oceans to reach France, England, Scotland, Greenland, Iceland, Ireland, Vinland and the Middle East. Thus, they became a dominant force in European medieval trade, politics and warfare.
A:The term known as the Middle Ages is synonymous with the Dark Ages for several reasons as the period between 500-1500 A.D. included political turmoil, social unrest and the spread of disease. The Middle Ages brought great change to Europe in many respects, including social mobility, politics and the way of life. Some changes proved beneficial, but the time period experienced negative effects from the change too.
A:South Africa became independent from Great Britain on December 11, 1931, but the British monarch remained head of state. On May 31, 1961, the country became a republic, severing all formal ties with Great Britain.
A:Historians study the past by gathering dates from archives, books, artifacts and documents, according to the United States Department of Labor. They use this data to analyze and develop an interpretation of history.
A:In 1967, rock music, peace and acceptance movements, comedic movies for younger audiences, new automobiles and a new style of miniskirt all became popular. Some of these trends remained popular for many years, while others were short trends that ended rather quickly.
A:Apartheid was created as a means of cementing economic and social control over South Africa and its resources. The country was colonized by the English and the Dutch in the 17th century. Yet, when gold was discovered in the 1900s, the British seized control, and war broke out. Eventually, peace negotiations were reached and the two shared power over South Africa until the Reunited National Party won the 1948 election.
A:In 1807, Napoleon was coming off of a high note. He had just signed the Treaty of Tilsit, which ended his war with Russia. To celebrate, he gathered his dignitaries for a rabbit hunt. Little did he know that, in a bizarre twist, he would become "hunted" instead.
A:Apartheid is a form of racial segregation that has its roots in South Africa. Under this system of segregation, South Africans were divided into groups of whites and nonwhites. Apartheid was introduced in 1948 under the governance of the National Party, which was a system of government run by all-white officials.