The modern flush toilet was invented in 1596 by the godson of Queen Elizabeth I, Sir John Harrington. The mechanism for his revolutionary design was published in a book entitled "Metamorphosis of Ajax."
Some historians claim that the Ancient Minoan city of Crete was the first to invent the flush toilet between 3000 B.C. and 1100 B.C., while other scholars attribute the toilet's initial development to the Skara Brae, an old Neolithic community located in Scotland. Harrington's contraption is the widely accepted first modern flush toilet. Other inventors who made innovations the toilet include Alexander Cummings and Thomas Crapper, a celebrated British plumber who remains falsely credited with the invention of the modern flush toilet.