Though a nomadic group, the Sioux bands roamed a massive swath of the Great Plains, from the Rocky Mountains in the west, east to Minnesota and south to Oklahoma. They also roamed as far north as modern Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Since the 1500s, the Sioux have been a horse culture, and even today some bands are well known for both their skill at breeding and the significance in which the horse itself is held. In the 1860s, the first resettlement treaties began taking place, reducing the area over which the tribes were able to move. Later, during the gold rush that swarmed the Black Hills of the Dakotas, the Sioux were resettled again, with much of their traditional lands taken from them. Much later, after the American Civil War, the Sioux would be known for two of the worst massacres in American Indian history. Custer's Last Stand, where 200 men would be overrun by 2,000 angry Sioux warriors, and Wounded Knee, where a few hundred unarmed Sioux were gunned down by the US Army over what was later reported to have been a simple misunderstanding. The Sioux still make up one of the largest tribal groups in the United States, encompassing more than 30,000 individuals, within three subdivisions, and 14 unique bands.