In the aftermath of the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution, Napoleon Bonaparte to seized power and became Emperor of France. In 1799, Napoleon led a military coup against the Directory, France's governing body, and in 1804 he became Emperor.
Radical leader Maximilien de Robespierre, who had led the Reign of Terror, was executed in 1794, effectively ending the French Revolution. However, following his death, France saw a return to the corruption that had helped lead to the revolution. The heir to the abolished monarch Louis Charles, King Louis XVII, died at age 10, leaving threat to a return monarch rule.