The Bay of Pigs invasion embarrassed the United States, drove a wedge between President Kennedy and his intelligence services and strengthened the relationship between the Soviet Union and Cuba. In the aftermath, the United States switched to more covert methods of trying to depose Fidel Castro, while the Soviets began sending supplies and weapons to Cuba to forestall another invasion. This ultimately led to the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962.
In terms of casualties, the Bay of Pigs invasion was essentially a draw. The Cuban forces suffered 176 killed, at least 500 wounded, and around 4,000 missing. The CIA and expatriate forces suffered 118 killed, 360 wounded and 1,202 captured. Several of the prisoners Cuba took were later executed. In the end, Cuba traded 1,113 prisoners for approximately $53 million in economic aid. Castro also let around 1,000 relatives of the expatriates leave Cuba to join their family members in the United States.
The buildup of missile forces in Cuba after the Bay of Pigs triggered a standoff between the United States and the Soviets in October of 1962. The United States discovered intermediate-range ballistic nuclear missiles in the island nation and demanded their removal. After heated diplomatic rhetoric from both sides and a naval blockade of Cuba, the Soviets agreed to remove the missiles in exchange for the dismantling of American missiles in Turkey and a promise to never again attempt to invade Cuba.