Queen Hatshepsut, the fifth pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of ancient Egypt, commissioned the construction of hundreds of project throughout the kingdom during her reign. Additionally, she sent envoys to areas in Africa and the Middle East to engage in trade and diplomacy, as well as limited military expeditions to those regions.
The lasting records of Hatshepsut's reign, which spanned approximately 22 years from 1478 to 1458 B.C., were largely in the form of the temples, monuments, statues and other structures she ordered built. The pharaoh restored the Precinct of Mut in Karnak, dedicated to an early goddess of the kingdom, that had been destroyed by the rulers during the Hyksos occupation and reign of Egypt several centuries earlier. She also built the Temple of Pakhet as well as her mortuary temple, located at Deir el-Bahri at the entrance of the famed Valley of the Kings.
As a ruler, Hatshepsut engaged in increasing the wealth of the kingdom through trade with neighbors. An expedition to the Land of Punt, thought to be near modern-day Somalia, comprised five ships that exchanged Egyptian goods for myrrh and frankincense. Envoys also returned with 31 live myrrh trees, the first historically documented tree transplant.
Hatshepsut ascended as pharaoh after the death of her husband and half-brother, Thutmose II, the fourth pharaoh of the dynasty. Officially, she co-ruled as a regent for their son, Thumose III, who was born around 1479. Her death, approximately January 16, 1458 B.C., was likely from bone cancer.