Were the Moon Landings a Hoax?

were-moon-landings-hoax Credit: Astronaut David R. Scott / Public domain/Other

On July 21, 1969, at 02:56 UTC, Neil Armstrong became the first human to set foot on the lunar surface. Definitive proof of this event is available from multiple sources, including hundreds of independent observatories, which regularly make use of laser refractory arrays that were placed during later Apollo missions.

More that 400,000 individuals worked on the various Apollo missions, comprising a total cost of more than $150 billion dollars in 2014 dollars, adjusted for inflation. There is simply no credible evidence to suggest that the technology existed to simulate the events, conditions or televised broadcasts from the moon landings or other manned spaceflights to the moon and back.

Even some of the key factors that have led some to believe that a hoax was perpetrated have been debunked using digital simulations, including identifying light sources that were previously believed to have been artificial. One such photograph was partially illuminated by light reflected off Neil Armstrong's stark white spacesuit, suits that reflect as much as 85 percent of the sun's light. In 2014, many of the details of the Apollo missions are not available to the public due to the nature of the missions, the details of the spaceflight and other matters of national security.