Key events during the Harlem Renaissance include publication of many African-American poems and novels, race riots, appointment of African-Americans to prominent political positions and establishment of several key organizations promoting equality for African-Americans, such as the Race Relations Commission in 1919 and the Colored Players Guild in 1921. The Harlem Renaissance spanned nearly two decades of American history, starting with the end of World War I and lasting through the 1930s. The African-American community experienced greater prominence and respect during that time due to the achievements of several notable authors, educators and politicians.
One of the main features of the Harlem Renaissance is the introduction of great literary works from African-American authors. Several authors, including Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston, produced historically significant works during the Harlem Renaissance. The year 1919, which marked the beginning of the Harlem Renaissance, saw the creation of the inaugural Pan-African Congress. Race riots took place around the United States, including Washington, D.C., Chicago and Knoxville.
In 1921, African American theater producers launched the first African-American show on Broadway, called "Shuffle Along." The following year brought legal protection in the form of anti-lynching legislation passed by Congress. Legendary musicians Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington launched their careers in 1923. On March 19, 1935, a race riot broke out in Harlem; later that year, two African-American musicals appeared on Broadway, including "Mulatto" by Langston Hughes.