The group of tribes referred to as the Hittites established the first Indo-European empire in the 17th century BC. The seat of the Hittite Empire was in Anatolia, modern-day Turkey, but at its peak the empire extended into Syria and Levant. At its peak, the Hittite empire rivaled Egypt.
Aside from a few biblical references and a few documents from Egypt, little was known about the Hittites until the early 19th century, when the former seat of the Hittite Empire was excavated. According to HistoryWorld.net, the first Hittite emperor, Hattusilis I, made the Anatolian city of Bogazkoy his capital. After a conquest in Syria, the emperor brought Syrian scribes back to his capitol city to record his empire's glory on stone tablets.