The 13 colonies were not really "split" in the sense that they started out as one big country that later divided into individual colonies. They formed as new groups arrived in America or broke off of previously established colonies in form new colonies.
The London Company established the first remaining colony in 1607, Virginia, which became a royal colony in 1624. In New England, the Plymouth colony - eventually Massachusetts - followed in 1620. After that came New Hampshire (1623), Maryland (1634), Connecticut (1635), Rhode Island (1636), Delaware (1638), North Carolina (1653), South Carolina (1663), New Jersey (1664), New York (1664), Pennsylvania (1682) and Georgia (1732).