The Boxer Rebellion in China, which was ultimately suppressed by the Eight-Nation Alliance of foreign powers in 1901, severely weakened the Qing Dynasty and its defense capabilities, forced the Chinese to accept the garrisoning of foreign troops within their borders and helped fuel a growing nationalist fervor. Much of the international expeditionary force that invaded China to suppress the rebellion stayed on after the fighting ended and engaged in massive looting, confiscation of property and extreme punitive actions against suspected supporters of the uprising, including civilians. China was also required to pay reparations that would have amounted to more than $60 billion based on a 2010 purchasing power parity.Continue Reading
The Boxer Rebellion, also referred to as the Yihetuan Movement, began in 1898 when opposition to foreign interests operating within China took the form of armed attacks on foreign diplomats, business personnel, soldiers and missionaries. The reaction of the Chinese government was divided and factions of the ruling Qing Dynasty initially supported the Boxers. The Eight-Nation Alliance, consisting of foreign powers which included England, France, Russia, the United States and Japan, captured the major Chinese cities of Beijing and Peking and, by September of 1901, the conflict officially ended when China accepted the Alliance's settlement terms known as the Boxer Protocol.
The Boxer Rebellion took its name from an English mistranslation of a version of the movement's original name, the Fists of Righteous Harmony. There has been some debate among historians regarding which of the terms, "rebellion," "uprising" or "movement," most accurately represents the true nature of the Chinese side of the conflict.Learn more about Modern Asia
The Chinese Revolution of 1911, also known as the Xinhai Revolution, ended the Qing Dynasty, formed the Republic of China and sparked a lengthy period of ideological and political struggle. Sun Yat-sen, the revolution's leader, was pronounced the first provisional president of the new republic on December 29, 1911 and a new flag, referred to as the Five Races Under One Union flag, was adopted as the emblem of the nation. The last Chinese Emperor, Xuantong Puyi, officially abdicated on February 12, 1912, signaling the beginning of the Chinese Republican Era and the end of 4,000 years of Imperial rule.Full Answer >
The People's Republic of China's stated goal in invading Tibet in 1950, sometimes referred to as a re-annexation, was to liberate the Tibetans from a repressive system of feudalism and to improve economic development and education within the region. The leader of the Chinese Communist Party, Mao Zedong, also stood to obtain political benefits from the international community, such as a recognition of legitimacy for the new government, by reclaiming the region without any visible interference from foreign powers or organizations. The re-annexation of the region carried a symbolic meaning for the Chinese Communist Party and helped to extend the spirit of confidence gained after their victory in the civil war fought against the Nationalists.Full Answer >
Confucianism impacted China by teaching social values and transcendent concepts, and by establishing institutions such as churches, schools and state buildings. Confucianism, in the most basic sense, classifies as a religion. However, historians consider Confucianism a civil religion, as its teachings and concepts touch on all aspects of society and life, carried out through rules, laws and codes.Full Answer >
China officially became communist on Oct. 1, 1949 after years of internal conflict when Mao Zedong proclaimed it the People's Republic of China. As chairman of the Chinese Communist Party, Mao Zedong, often called Chairman Mao, became the ruler of China until he died in 1976.Full Answer >