Some famous and well-respected black physicians in history include Dr. Daniel Hale Williams, Dr. William Augustus Hinton and Dr. Charles DeWitt Watts. All three physicians broke racial barriers in the medical world.
In 1891, Williams founded Provident Hospital and Training School for Nurses, and in 1893 he performed the first successful open-heart surgery in the world. In 1895, he also aided in the formation of the National Medical Association.
William Augustus Hinton in 1936 was the first African-American physician to publish a textbook. He developed the Hinton Test, a method for detecting syphilis.
Charles DeWitt Watts advocated for civil rights including the medical rights of the poor in Durham, North Carolina. He fought for the certification of black medical students.