Three historical events in Scotland's history are the emergence of the Kingdom of Alba, Scotland's struggle for independence and Scotland's union with England. Scotland's history covers thousands of years from the country's beginnings as a land of hunter-gathers and primitive farmers to a major European democracy.
In the 10th century, Scotland evolved from a simple society into the Kingdom of Alba, a feudal society modeled in part on that of England. In 1314, Scotland ended a nearly 20-year occupation by England and achieved independence in 1328. In 1587, Scotland's queen was executed by the English, and the king of England became the king of Scotland.