The Rosenberg trial involved the conviction and execution of a married couple for passing information about nuclear technology to the Soviet Union. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were associated with the American Communist Party, and their alleged actions may have aided the Soviet Union in constructing and testing atom bombs. The trial was controversial due to questionable testimony from the Rosenbergs' alleged accomplices, who were granted reduced sentences for their cooperation.
The Rosenbergs were tried under the Espionage Act of 1917. Julius was an electrical engineer who previously lost his job with the U.S. Army Signal Corps because of communist affiliations. David Greenglass, Ethel Rosenberg's brother-in-law, testified that Julius Rosenberg asked him to convey secret instructions for creating atomic weapons. Chemist Harry Gold confessed to being a go-between for the Soviet vice-consul and American spies, including the Rosenbergs. The testimonies of Greenglass and Gold were viewed as circumstantial and conflicting, creating public doubts about the Rosenbergs' guilt. Eventually however, after the Cold War ended, evidence was released by the Soviet Union which more strongly implicated Julius Rosenberg as an active participant in the operation.
As a result of Senator Joseph McCarthy's extreme anti-communist campaign, the U.S. government took overzealous action against anyone suspected of communist activity or ties to the Soviet Union during the Cold War. The U.S. government feared internal spies were responsible for trading secrets about nuclear bombs. On July 17, 1950, Julius Rosenberg was arrested. His wife was taken into custody a month later for allegedly aiding the conspiracy, leading to a month-long trial and two years of imprisonment before their deaths on June 19, 1953. The Rosenbergs were executed because they refused to confess to espionage in return for serving a shorter sentence.