Ramses II of Egypt was born in 1303 BC, lived for 90 years and ruled Egypt for 66 years. After the death of his father, Seti I, Ramses II took the throne at the age of 24 in the New Kingdom and the 19th Dynasty.
Ramses II's 67-year reign was the second longest reign of all the pharaohs of ancient Egypt. He was the third ruler of the 19th Dynasty. His most notable historic achievements involve the architectural projects he carried out during his reign, including the construction of the temples of Abu Simbel and Ramesseum.
During his reign, Ramses II oversaw many military campaigns. His most famous battle was the Battle of Kadesh against the Hittites. The battle, fought on chariots, ended in a stalemate. Ramses II shored up the borders of Egypt and fought off attacks by the Hittites and Nubians.
Ramses II had many wives, fathering 111 sons and 51 daughters. Historians say arterial issues and arthritis may have contributed to the pharaoh’s death. After his death, grave robbers stole his mummy from its resting place in the Valley of the Kings, which was entombed in tomb DB320 after its recovery. Transfer of the body to the Egyptian Museum in Cairo occurred in 1881.