Quanah Parker, known as the last chief of the Comanches, was the son of Comanche Chief Peta Nocona and Cynthia Ann Parker. Parker was a white girl taken captive by the Comanches during a raid.
He refused the Treaty of Medicine Lodge in 1867, which called for the Quahada Comanche’s confinement to a reservation and provided clothing and farming education. Quanah viewed these provisions as an effort to assimilate his people into the white man's culture and decided to fight against the provisions for another eight years. However, Quanah surrendered at Fort Sill in 1875. Quanah knew that he had fought as much as was possible for his people and felt that to fight any more would be futile.
Though he began to live in the white man's world, he did not abandon the ways of his ancestors. For example, he refused to give up polygamy, which was a common practice among the Comanche people. He had seven wives and 24 children. He also continued to smoke peyote, a practice with which the white man did not agree. He learned English and became active in the business and political worlds in an effort to improve upon and lobby for the betterment of the rights of the Comanche people.