France was in the midst of a revolution in 1792 and faced a major change in its system of government. An insurrection in August of that year led to the storming of Tuileries Palace and the eventual execution of King Louis XVI.
The events now known as the French Revolution had begun several years earlier with growing popular resentment toward the aristocracy and the privileged members of the clergy. Prior to 1791, France had been an absolute monarchy, and the estate representing the people had no real power and served only to advise the king. A series of events, including the storming of the Bastille, had pressured the king into adopting a constitutional monarchy in which a legislative assembly had some real measure of power.
The assembly turned out to be fractious, ineffective and riddled with corruption, however. This led a group of elected leaders from Paris to form the Paris Commune and support a group of militias in taking Tuileries Palace by force on August 10, 1792. The royal family was taken prisoner, and the monarchy was suspended by a rump session of the legislative assembly. The French National Convention would eventually become the new government of France, abolish the monarchy and execute the king and queen.