Neville Chamberlain was prime minister of the United Kingdom before Winston Churchill. Chamberlain took office on May 28, 1937, and his tenure was ended on May 10, 1940.
The policy for which Neville Chamberlain is most remembered is "appeasement," which describes his approach to the growing threat of Adolf Hitler's Germany. In order to placate the dictator, Chamberlain and other European leaders consented to Hitler's bellicose demands for more territory in Europe. They allowed him to merge Austria into the German state in 1938, and then they met with Hitler at the Munich Conference in 1938, agreeing to allow Germany to absorb the Sudetenland, a part of Czechoslovakia that had a large German population. Though he declared war on Germany after Hitler invaded Poland, Chamberlain's government had lost support from his own party. The parties in Parliament agreed to support Winston Churchill as the head of a united government.