According to the White House, the man who succeeded James Madison and became the fifth President of the United States is James Monroe. With President Madison's approval, he won election to the office in 1816 as a Republican, and he also won again in 1820 when he ran unopposed.
Monroe lost his first campaign for president when he ran against James Madison in 1808. Monroe's terms as president are largely remembered for the Monroe Doctrine. With the help of his Secretary of State, John Quincy Adams, Monroe formulated this doctrine to keep Europe from interfering with the United States, its territories, Central America and South America. The United States grew under this administration, adding the five states of Mississippi, Illinois, Alabama, Maine and Missouri.