The existence of the Nile River delta, in addition to the Mediterranean Sea, made Egypt a viable and formidable civilization in ancient times. The Nile River flooded regularly, providing people with a large strip of land that could be farmed. The river flows all the way through Egypt, so it was also an easy method of travel.
The regular flooding of the Nile brought deposits of nutrient-rich sediment on a regular basis from July to November. The Nile River was often called "The River of Life" because of its importance to the Egyptian culture. In fact, several deities presided over it, such as the goddess Isis. While the Nile provided people with food, water and an easy means of travel, Egypt was relatively safe from invasion by foreign powers. To the west and south, the Sahara Desert proved inhospitable territory for would-be enemies to cross. To the east, the Arabian Peninsula provided similar protection. In addition, the desert was a rich source of precious metals that could be used for trade with ancient Greece and Rome or as currency. Because of Egypt's geography, it was well-suited to become one of the most prominent cultures of the ancient world and one whose impact survives today.