Shays' Rebellion lasted for a little more than a year and ended with Shays' defeat by General Benjamin Lincoln's state militia. Although it was relatively short-lived, Shays' Rebellion played a key role in the formation of some of the most crucial legislation in the early United States. Even the Constitution was created in part because of Shays' Rebellion.
After the American Revolutionary War, the United States suffered from a crushing economic decline. Former international trading partners were lost, the U.S. market diminished, and many U.S. citizens found themselves falling into debt. In the 1780s, farmers in Massachusetts, one of the hardest hit areas, pleaded state governments to enact pro-debtor laws to reduce the economic strain. When the government ignored these pleas, many farms were seized and farmers who could not pay their debts were imprisoned. These actions caused growing discontent in the local population and led to protests and demonstrations.
In 1786, the demonstrations and protests grew into an armed uprising led by Daniel Shays. The Shaysites, however, were not well-equipped or trained. The governor of Massachusetts, James Bowdoin, organized a militia led by General Benjamin Lincoln which quickly crushed the rebellion in the winter of 1787. Even though Shays' Rebellion did not last long, the discontent among farmers and citizens continued. The rebellion shocked politicians and was used as justification for political reform ending with the Articles of Confederation being replaced by the Constitution.