Mesopotamia is considered the first civilization. Mesopotamia was an area near modern-day Iraq, Syria and Turkey. Mesopotamia is known as the "cradle of civilization" because it is where both the first civilization evolved and also where writing originated.
The invention of the wheel, the creation of written language, agriculture and domestication of animals are all credited to the Mesopotamians. Their original culture spread and brought about the advancement of humans from hunter-gatherer societies to more modern city-based people who were able to settle in one place and cultivate food. Many modern urban advancements that are still used can be traced back to Mesopotamia.