What Is the Oldest Civilization Known to Man?

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Civilizations do not typically have discreet start dates, but tend to emerge gradually over the course of many centuries. This makes it a matter of interpretation whether Egypt, Mesopotamia or India was the first society to develop fixed residences and a complex division of labor.

According to Most Extreme, the Egyptian civilization is said to have begun with the start of the Dynastic period around 3200 B.C. Prior to this, groups of people lived in villages and farmed the Nile basin, but the nucleus of what would be Egypt began with the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt at the start of the First Dynasty. This political change was attended by the invention of the first writing system, another hallmark of civilization.