Mumtaz Mahal, the Mughal empress in whose memory the Taj Mahal was built, had 14 children with her husband, Shah Jahan I. Seven of these children died at birth or in early childhood.
Of Mahal's seven surviving children, Jahanara Begum, who lived from 1614 to 1681, was the eldest daughter, and Dara Shikoh, who lived from 1615 to 1659, was the eldest son. Shah Shuja was the second son, and Roshanara Begum was the second daughter. Next came Aurangzeb, who became the sixth Mughal emperor and reigned for 49 years. The fourth surviving son was Murad Bakhsh. Mahal died while giving birth to her youngest daughter, Gauharara Begum.