Many scholars have recorded a list of about 170 known pharaohs, although The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York puts the list at slightly more than 190. According to that list, the first pharaoh was Zanakht who ruled from 2649 B.C. until 2630 B.C. The final pharaoh was Cleopatra VII, who ruled from 51 B.C. to 30 B.C.
There was often several rulers of ancient Egypt at the same time. For example, Cleopatra VII, the final pharaoh of Egypt, ruled jointly with her brothers, latterly, with her infant son.
The pharaohs of Egypt are split up into historical periods:
- The Old Kingdom - from 2649 B.C. to 2150 B.C.
- First Intermediate Period - from 2150 B.C. to 2030 B.C., including Mentuhotep II
- Middle Kingdom - from 2130 B.C. to 1640 B.C., including Amenenhat I
- Second Intermediate Period - from 1640 B.C. to 1540 B.C.
- New Kingdom - from 1540 B.C. to 1070 B.C., including Tutankhamun and Ramesses I to Ramesses XI
- High Priests of Amun - from 1080 B.C. to 1070 B.C.
- Third Intermediate Period - from 1070 B.C. to 713 B.C.
- Late Period - from 713 B.C. to 332 B.C., including Piye and Apries
- Macedonian Period - from 332 B.C. to 304 B.C., including Alexander the Great
- Ptolemaic Period - from 304 B.C. to 30 B.C., including Ptolemy II Philadelphos, Cleopatra I to Cleopatra IV, as well as Cleopatra VII