Some of the main events on the timeline of the Ottoman Empire include its formation in 1259, the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the spread of the Ottomans into Europe in the 16th Century. The collapse of the Ottoman Empire in 1918 is another important event.
Osman I formed the Ottoman Empire in 1259 in present-day Turkey. The weakened Byzantine Empire allowed Muslim states to rise in wealth and power.
In 1453, Mehmed II blockaded Constantinople. During the siege, he bombarded the city with cannons, and after several days, the Turks entered the city. Constantine XI, the last Byzantine emperor, died during the attack. Mehmed became the Sultan and declared Constantinople a Muslim city. He allowed his soldiers to loot the city for three days.
After successful campaigns in Persia, the Ottomans turned their attention to Europe under the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent. Suleyman conquered parts of southeast Europe, and the Ottoman Empire reached its peak under his reign. Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, the Ottomans attacked Eastern Europe including Vienna, Ukraine, Russia and the Balkans.
In 1918, World War 1 ended. The Ottoman Empire collapsed, and European victors divided it up, abolishing the monarchy in Turkey and expelling the Sultans from the country.